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National services

Our experts

National services

Our experts

National services

Our experts

National services

Our experts

Prof Paramala Santosh

Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist



Area of expertise
  • Personalised medicine research into the assessment and management of emotional behavioural autonomic dysregulation (EBAD), a common cluster of symptoms associated with treatment-resistant neuropsychiatric multi-morbidity
  • Research involving web-based patient reported outcome measures and wearable sensor-based psychophysiological monitoring to assist in personalising patient care
  • Co-occurrence of autism, ADHD, bipolar disorder and anxiety and its psychopharmacology
  • Rare disease research, especially Rett syndrome, Mucopolysaccharidoses, and paediatric neurodegeneration

Biography
Professor Santosh is a Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist at the Maudsley Hospital, and a Professor in Developmental Neuropsychiatry and Psychopharmacology at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neurosciences (IoPPN), King’s College London. He is an internationally recognised expert in paediatric psychopharmacology, ADHD, ASD, Rett syndrome, and heads the national and specialist Centre for Interventional Paediatric Psychopharmacology and Rare Diseases (CIPPRD), and the Centre for Personalised Medicine in Rett Syndrome (CPMRS) and a digital health innovator.

His expertise lies in managing children and adolescents with severe and complex treatment-resistant neuropsychiatric disorders, rare diseases, and acquired brain injury. His research includes personalised medicine, psychopharmacology, conducting clinical trials in Rett syndrome, and investigating emotional behavioural autonomic dysregulation (EBAD) in patient populations.

Other roles
Professor Santosh is a Professor in Developmental Neuropsychiatry and Psychopharmacology at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neurosciences (IoPPN), King’s College London. His main focus is on translational research exploring new ways to improve patient care, psychopharmacology, clinical trials in Rett syndrome, autonomic dysregulation in patient populations, and personalized medicine.

Professor Santosh also co-developed the HealthTrackerTM platform and is the CEO of HealthTracker Ltd, a SME. The HealthTracker™ is a user-friendly, mature, GDPR-compliant health-monitoring platform with gamified and animated questionnaires that can assist in remote screening, outcome monitoring, and patient management especially those on medications.

Education and training
  • M.B.B.S, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India, 1987
  • M.D. in Psychiatry, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India, 1992.
  • Dip.NBE, Diploma of the National Board of Examinations in Psychiatry, New Delhi, India, 1993
  • MRCPsych., The Royal College of Psychiatrists, London, UK, 1997. FRCPsych, 2010
  • CCST in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Specialist Authority of the Medical Royal Colleges, UK, 2002.
  • PhD in Child Neuropsychiatry, University of London, London, UK, August 2010

Publications
Santosh P, Singh J, Adams L, et al. Validation of the Transition Readiness and Appropriateness Measure (TRAM) for the Managing the Link and Strengthening Transition from Child to Adult Mental Healthcare in Europe (MILESTONE) study. BMJ Open 2020;0:e033324. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033324

O'Hara L, Holme I, Tah P, Franic T, Vrljičak Davidović N, Paul M, Singh SP, Street C, Tuomainen H, Schulze U, McNicholas F; MILESTONE Consortium. A cross-cultural qualitative study of the ethical aspects in the transition from child mental health services to adult mental health services. Child Adolesc Ment Health. 2020 Mar 23. doi: 10.1111/camh.12377.

Cortese S, Coghill D, Santosh P, Hollis C, Simonoff E; European ADHD Guidelines Group. Starting ADHD medications during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations from the European ADHD Guidelines Group. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2020 Jun;4(6):e15. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30144-9.

Cortese S, Asherson P, Sonuga-Barke E, Banaschewski T, Brandeis D, Buitelaar J, Coghill D, Daley D, Danckaerts M, Dittmann RW, Doepfner M, Ferrin M, Hollis C, Holtmann M, Konofal E, Lecendreux M, Santosh P, Rothenberger A, Soutullo C, Steinhausen HC, Taylor E, Van der Oord S, Wong I, Zuddas A, Simonoff E; European ADHD Guidelines Group. ADHD management during the COVID-19 pandemic: guidance from the European ADHD Guidelines Group.

Santosh P, Adams L, Fiori F, Davidović N, de Girolamo G, Dieleman GC, Franić T, Heaney N, Lievesley K, Madan J, Maras A, Mastroianni M, McNicholas F, Paul M, Purper-Ouakil D, Sagar-Ouriaghli I, Schulze U, Signorini G, Street C, Tah P, Tremmery S, Tuomainen H, Verhulst FC, Warwick J, Wolke D, Singh J, Singh SP; MILESTONE Consortium. Protocol for the development and validation procedure of the managing the link and strengthening transition from child to adult mental health care (MILESTONE) suite of measures. BMC Pediatr. 2020 Apr 16;20(1):167. doi: 10.1186/s12887-020-02079-9.

Kleine Deters R, Naaijen J, Rosa M, Aggensteiner PM, Banaschewski T, Saam MC, Schulze UM, Sethi A, Craig MC, Sagar-Ouriaghli I, Santosh P, Castro-Fornieles J, Penzol MJ, Arango C, Werhahn JE, Brandeis D, Franke B, Glennon J, Buitelaar JK, Hoekstra PJ, Dietrich A. Executive functioning and emotion recognition in youth with Oppositional Defiant Disorder and/or Conduct Disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2020 Mar 26:1-39.

Pennap D, Zito JM, Santosh PJ, Tom SE, Onukwugha E, Magder LS. Continuity of Care and Mental Health Service Use Among Medicaid-enrolled Youths. Med Care. 2020 Mar;58(3):199-207.

Sheehan R, Strydom A, Marston L, Morant N, Fiori F, Santosh P, Hassiotis A. A structured medication review tool to promote psychotropic medication optimisation for adults with intellectual disability: feasibility study. BMJ Open. 2019 Dec 15;9(12):e033827.

Reddihough DS, Marraffa C, Mouti A, O'Sullivan M, Lee KJ, Orsini F, Hazell P, Granich J, Whitehouse AJO, Wray J, Dossetor D, Santosh P, Silove N, Kohn M. Effect of Fluoxetine on Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviors in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019 Oct 22;322(16):1561-1569.

Singh J, Lanzarini E, Santosh P. Autonomic Dysfunction and Sudden Death in Patients with Rett Syndrome: A Systematic Review. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience. 2019 Nov 8;45(1):190033. Effect of Fluoxetine on Obsessive-Compulsive Behaviors in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019 Oct 22;322(16):1561-1569.

Craig MC, Mulder LM, Zwiers MP, Sethi A, Hoekstra PJ, Dietrich A, Baumeister S, Aggensteiner PM, Banaschewski T, Brandeis D, Werhahn JE, Walitza S, Castro-Fornieles J, Arango C, Schulze UME, Glennon JC, Franke B, Santosh PJ, Mastroianni M, van Asten JJA, Buitelaar JK, Lythgoe DJ, Naaijen J. Distinct associations between fronto-striatal glutamate concentrations and callous-unemotional traits and proactive aggression in disruptive behavior. Cortex. 2019 Dec;121:135-146.

Milestone Consortium, Russet F, Humbertclaude V, Dieleman G, Dodig-Ćurković K, Hendrickx G, Kovač V, McNicholas F, Maras A, Santosh P, Paul M, Schulze UME, Signorini G, Street C, Tah P, Tuomainen H, Singh SP, Tremmery S, Purper-Ouakil D. Training of adult psychiatrists and child and adolescent psychiatrists in europe: a systematic review of training characteristics and transition from child/adolescent to adult mental health services. BMC Med Educ. 2019 Jun 13;19(1):204. doi: 10.1186/s12909-019-1576-0.

Rodríguez-Quiroga A, Flamarique I, Castro-Fornieles J, Lievesley K, Buitelaar JK, Coghill D, Díaz-Caneja CM, Dittmann RW, Gupta A, Hoekstra PJ, Kehrmann L, Llorente C, Purper-Ouakil D, Schulze UME, Zuddas A, Sala R, Singh J, Fiori F, Arango C, Santosh P; STOP Consortium. Development and psychometric properties of the "Suicidality: Treatment Occurring in Paediatrics (STOP) Risk and Resilience Factors Scales" in adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 May 3. doi: 10.1007/s00787-019-01328-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Hendrickx G, De Roeck V, Russet F, Dieleman G, Franic T, Maras A, McNicholas F, Paul M, Santosh P, Schulze U, Signorini G, Singh SP, Street C, Tuomainen H, Verhulst F, Wolke D, Purper-Ouakil D, Tremmery S; MILESTONE Consortium. Transition as a topic in psychiatry training throughout Europe: trainees' perspectives. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Mar 9. doi: 10.1007/s00787-019-01309-5. [Epub ahead of print]

Carballo JJ, Llorente C, Kehrmann L, Flamarique I, Zuddas A, Purper-Ouakil D, Hoekstra PJ, Coghill D, Schulze UME, Dittmann RW, Buitelaar JK, Castro-Fornieles J, Lievesley K, Santosh P, Arango C; STOP Consortium. Psychosocial risk factors for suicidality in children and adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2020 Jun;29(6):759-776. doi: 10.1007/s00787-018-01270-9. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Tuomainen H, Schulze U, Warwick J, Paul M, Dieleman GC, Franić T, de Girolamo G, Madan J, Maras A, McNicholas F, Purper-Ouakil D, Santosh P, Signorini G, Street C, Tremmery S, Verhulst FC, Wolke D, Singh SP; MILESTONE consortium. Correction to: Managing the link and strengthening transition from child to adult mental health Care in Europe (MILESTONE): background, rationale and methodology. BMC Psychiatry. 2018 Sep 14;18(1):295. doi: 10.1186/s12888-018-1881-x.

Singh J, Santosh P. Key issues in Rett syndrome: emotional, behavioural and autonomic dysregulation (EBAD) - a target for clinical trials. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2018 Jul 31;13(1):128. doi: 10.1186/s13023-018-0873-8. Review.

Paul M, O'Hara L, Tah P, Street C, Maras A, Ouakil DP, Santosh P, Signorini G, Singh SP, Tuomainen H, McNicholas F; MILESTONE Consortium. A systematic review of the literature on ethical aspects of transitional care between child- and adult-orientated health services. BMC Med Ethics. 2018 Jul 18;19(1):73.

Sagar-Ouriaghli I, Milavic G, Barton R, Heaney N, Fiori F, Lievesley K, Singh J, Santosh P. Comparing the DSM-5 construct of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and ICD-10 Mixed Disorder of Emotion and Conduct in the UK Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (UK-LAMS) Study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 Sep;27(9):1095-1104. doi: 10.1007/s00787-018-1149-5. Epub 2018 May 5.

Pennap D, Zito JM, Santosh PJ, Tom SE, Onukwugha E, Magder LS. Patterns of Early Mental Health Diagnosis and Medication Treatment in a Medicaid-Insured Birth Cohort. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Jun 1;172(6):576-584. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.0240.

Signorini G, Singh SP, Marsanic VB, Dieleman G, Dodig-Ćurković K, Franic T, Gerritsen SE, Griffin J, Maras A, McNicholas F, O'Hara L, Purper-Ouakil D, Paul M, Russet F, Santosh P, Schulze U, Street C, Tremmery S, Tuomainen H, Verhulst F, Warwick J, de Girolamo G; MILESTONE Consortium. Correction to: The interface between child/adolescent and adult mental health services: results from a European 28‑country survey. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 Nov;27(11):1511-1512.

Sagar-Ouriaghli I, Lievesley K, Santosh PJ. Propranolol for treating emotional, behavioural, autonomic dysregulation in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. J Psychopharmacol. 2018 Jun;32(6):641-653. doi: 10.1177/0269881118756245. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Pisano S, Pozzi M, Catone G, Scrinzi G, Clementi E, Coppola G, Milone A, Bravaccio C, Santosh P, Masi G. Putative Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Use of Lithium in Children and Adolescents: A Critical Review. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2019;17(4):318-341.

Howes OD, Rogdaki M, Findon JL, Wichers RH, Charman T, King BH, Loth E, McAlonan GM, McCracken JT, Parr JR, Povey C, Santosh P, Wallace S, Simonoff E, Murphy DG. Autism spectrum disorder: Consensus guidelines on assessment, treatment and research from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2018 Jan;32(1):3-29. doi: 10.1177/0269881117741766. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Santosh P. Stimulant Medication to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (2017). BMJ. 2017 Jul 14;358:j2945. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j2945.

Santosh PJ, Lievesley K, Fiori F, Singh J (2017). Development of the Tailored Rett Intervention and Assessment Longitudinal (TRIAL) database and the Rett Evaluation of Symptoms and Treatments (REST) Questionnaire. BMJ Open. 2017 Jun 21;7(6):e015342. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015342.

Singh J and Santosh P (2017). Psychopharmacology of Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children, pp. 325-362 in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Asian Perspectives. Edition 1, Springer. Nature.

Santosh PJ, Singh J (2016). Drug Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders and their Comorbidities in Children. British Journal of Psychiatry Advances. 22, pp. 151-161.

Santosh P, Tarver J, Gibbons F, et al. Protocol for the development and validation of a questionnaire to assess concerning behaviours and mental health in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: the Assessment of Concerning Behaviour (ACB) scale. BMJ Open 2016;6:e010693. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015- 010693

Singh J, Santosh P (2016): Psychopharmacology of Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children (Chapter). In Savita Malhotra and Paramala Santosh (Eds): Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 978-81-322-3617-7, 338724_1 (18) (in press).

Santosh P, Bell L, Fiori F, Singh J (2016): Pediatric Antipsychotic Use and Outcomes Monitoring. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2017 Aug;27(6):546-554. doi: 10.1089/cap.2015.0247. Epub 2016 Sep 8.

Santosh PJ, Bell L, Lievesley K, Singh J and Fiori F (2016): Paradoxical Physiological Responses to Propranolol in a Rett Syndrome Patient: A Case Report. BMC Pediatr. 2016 Nov 29;16(1):194.